This week in class we read about the Golden Age of Greece and about the Persian wars between Persia and Greece.The invasion of Greece by the Persians in 480 B.C.E. is a major event in Greek history.This document helps explain the feelings of the Persians as they are about to invade Greece in 480 B.C.E.It is important, as it helps to show what the Persians, especially King Xerxes think and feel about Greece and its people.The document does a good job of explaining the Persian view of the situation between Greece and Persia and why Xerxes chooses to invade Greece.
In the document Xerxes is addressing his nobles and he explains that by invading Greece he will equal the feats of the great Persian rulers that came before him.Xerxes basically states that he wants revenge for the defeat the Greeks inflicted upon his father.Xerxes is determined to fight Greece and burn Athens because of the damage and pain Greece has inflicted upon the Persians.For Xerxes, Greece is only the start, as he wants to go on and conquer as much of the world as he can.
Two other men also talk in the document.One of them, Mardonius agrees with Xerxes that Persia should invade Greece.While the other, Artabanus argues against invading Greece.Mardonius states that they should conquer the Greeks, especially since they have conquered other nations who have done no wrong to Persia while Greece has hurt Persia before.Mardonius believes that the Persians can beat the Greeks and that the Persians are better than the Greeks.
Artabanus asks Xerxes to be cautious about invading Greece.Artabanus explains that the Persians should be careful since bad things could happen when they invade Greece.He believes that the Greeks may not be easy to defeat and that they are a capable enemy.
Memorabilia by Xenophon relates to this week’s reading about Socrates. Socrates is someone who would question the people of Greece about the actual presence of a God, which made the young people of Greece question their parents and their whole religion. The article relates to the reading about Socrates because Xenophon explains that his friend knew what was truly terrible about the Greek society that the people of Greece had been feeding into.
This document about Socrates is very important. The people of Greece believed that Socrates was corrupting the youth by making them question the religion that they had been taught throughout their life. Xenophon states that when Socrates would make the Greeks think about what they already know, there would be fear of the unknown. Most of the Greeks did not want to believe in what Socrates was saying because they feared that there would be shame upon them by their God and even the other Greeks that without a doubt would never question their God. Xenophon talks about the Greeks praising items such as: “stones, stalks, and beasts” instead of the actual existence of a God in their country. So it is the people of Greece that actually think for themselves during down time that they start thinking that Socrates may have a point about what he is teaching the youth. When one started to do some heavy thinking, it would upset them because they would never want to dishonor the God they have known for so long.
“For just as some madmen, he said, have no apprehension of what is truly terrible, others fear where no fear is; some are ready to say and do anything in public without the slightest symptom of shame;others think they ought not so much as to set foot among their fellow-men; some honour neither temple, nor altar, nor aught else sacred to the name of God; others bow down to stocks and stones and worship the very beasts:— so is it with those thinkers whose minds are cumbered with cares concerning the Universal Nature.”
"I shall begin with our ancestors : it is both just and proper that they should have the honor of the first mention on an occasion like the present. They dwelt in the country without break in the succession from generation to generation, and handed it down free to the present time by their valor.And if our more remote ancestors deserve praise, much more do our own fathers, who added to their inheritance the empire which we now possess, and spared no pains to be able to leave their acquisitions to us of the present generation. Lastly, there are few parts of our dominions that have not been augmented by those of us here, who are still more or less in the vigor of life; while the mother country has been furnished by us with everything that can enable her to depend on her own resources whether for war or for peace. That part of our history which tells of the military achievements which gave us our several possessions, or of the ready valour with which either we or our fathers stemmed the tide of Hellenic or foreign aggression, is a theme too familiar to my hearers for me to dilate on, and I shall therefore pass it by. But what was the road by which we reached our position, what the form of government under which our greatness grew, what the national habits out of which it sprang; these are questions which I may try to solve before I proceed to my panegyric upon these men; since I think this to be a subject upon which on the present occasion a speaker may properly dwell, and to which the whole assemblage, whether citizens or foreigners, may listen with advantage.That panegyric is now in a great measure complete; for the Athens that I have celebrated is only what the heroism of these and their like have made her, men whose fame, unlike that of most Hellenes, will be found to be only commensurate with their deserts. And if a test of worth be wanted, it is to be found in their closing scene, and this not only in cases in which it set the final seal upon their merit, but also in those in which it gave the first intimation of their having any. For there is justice in the claim that steadfastness in his country's battles should be as a cloak to cover a man's other imperfections; since the good action has blotted out the bad, and his merit as a citizen more than outweighed his demerits as an individual. But none of these allowed either wealth with its prospect of future enjoyment to unnerve his spirit, or poverty with its hope of a day of freedom and riches to tempt him to shrink from danger. No, holding that vengeance upon their enemies was more to be desired than any personal blessings, and reckoning this to be the most glorious of hazards, they joyfully determined to accept the risk, to make sure of their vengeance, and to let their wishes wait; and while committing to hope the uncertainty of final success, in the business before them they thought fit to act boldly and trust in themselves. Thus choosing to die resisting, rather than to live submitting, they fled only from dishonor, but met danger face to face, and after one brief moment, while at the summit of their fortune, escaped, not from their fear, but from their glory."
This week we learned about Pericles who made many reforms to politics during his day and was a part of one of the most distinguished Athenian families. I chose this primary source because it tells us more about the customs of the day such as setting out the bones of the dead to give offerings. This is set about one year into the war and gives moral to not only other soldiers but the people who are still fighting for their beliefs and rights. It shows the power and presence of Pericles speaking as well as how the people of Athens looked to him for guidance and wisdom.
The traditional role of women had no place for them in warfare in the ancient world. However the historian Herodotus told of the battle at Salamis off the coast of Greece in 480 between the Persian naval fleet and the newly established Greek naval force of triremes, and a woman named Artemisia who rose to a place of prominence in the Persian Empire with her actions as commander of a Persian ship. When Artemisia learned of the Greek fleet massing near the island of Salamis off the Athenian coast, the Anatolian ruler saw a trap. She implored her king Xerxes to not fight the Greeks on the sea where they were trying to level the playing field, and instead to continue to fight on land where the Persian army outnumbered the Greeks by more than 10 to 1. She stated “Spare your ships, and do not risk a battle; for these people are as much superior to your people in seamanship, as men to women. What so great need is there for you to incur hazard at sea? Are you not master of Athens, for which you did undertake your expedition? Is not Hellas subject to you?” Artemisia realized that nothing could be gained by fighting the Greeks at sea on their terms. Unfortunately for the Persians, Xerxes fell for the Greeks ploy and ordered his fleet to advance on the Greeks. Artemisia was the commander of one of Xerxes ships and was able to save herself from the carnage that the Greek navy incurred on the Persians. Artemisia was able to sink one of her own ships which gave the Greek commander the notion that she was fighting for him and he gave up pursuit of her ship. While watching her from the shore Xerxes stated "My men have behaved like women, my women like men!” a statement like that had been stated rarely if not never when describing women in war. Even though the Persians lost the battle and eventually lost Greece as a territory of Persia, Artemisia remained a prominent figure in Persia.
From the laws of Rome we find a unique society. This link sends us to the Twelve Tables. A commission was put forth to write laws that would lead and bind Roman citizens. We have discussed political power and Imperial power through the internal and external wars, such as the Persian siege. This shows us a more detailed look into their laws and society, to help us understand the culture of Roman life.
Posted: 14 Oct 2011 03:13 PM Originally Posted: 14 Oct 2011 03:10 PM
Exactly how Focusing Your Promoting Efforts Can help
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